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-

— , — , , , (, , . ., — . Ruthenia , ).

- ( ), () .

( ) ( ( — , ), . « », — : ', ', , , - ). -. , , ( — ) — , 1771 . , .

1772 , , , «» , (Little Tartary), , . , , () . , . , (Lapland) (Sweden). — (Muscovite Tartary).

18 , — .

, , (Great Tartary) , , :

«TARTARY, a vast country in the northern parts of Asia, bounded by Siberia on the north and west: this is called Great Tartary. The Tartars who lie south of Moscovy and Siberia, are those of Astracan, Circassia, and Dagistan, situated north-west of the Caspian-sea; the Calmuc Tartars, who lie between Siberia and the Caspian-sea; the Usbec Tartars and Moguls, who lie north of Persia and India; and lastly, those of Tibet, who lie north-west of China»

«, , : . , , , , - , ; , , , , - ».

1771 , , . , . - (hinese Tartary) [ (China)]. , , (Independent Tartary) [ ]. (Tibet) - - . (Mogul Empire) [ ]. (Bukaria) , -, -, (Persia) -. : (Muscovite Tartary), (Kuban Tartars) (Little Tartary).

(Mogul Empire), , , , . — , , , . , gul () , , - .

, - , - , , , , — - , . - (Great Tartary) , , — - 7038 ... 1530 .

, — . , ­ , . , ­ .

. , , : « » ( — — — ) — , , , . : , «» , , ( - - ) 40 . , , , ( ; — ).

, , , . , . , , , . : — , , , , . .

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